These complemented the Zarechnoye JV 250 km to the south which was set up in June 2006.

However, in 20 the 50% ARMZ equity in these three was traded for an eventual 51% share of Canadian-based Uranium One Inc, which subsequently became wholly-owned by ARMZ.

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Net imports from Russia was 471 GWh, net exports to Kyrgystan was 421 GWh.

In 2015 capacity was 21 GWe with 17.5 GWe available, but maximum output was 12.5 GWe.

The second JV with Tenex, confirmed in 2008, is for extending a small uranium enrichment plant at Angarsk in southern Siberia (this will also be the site of the first international enrichment centre, in which Kazatomprom has a 10% interest).

It will eventually be capable of enriching the whole 6000 tonnes of uranium production from Russian mining JVs in Kazakhstan. The uranium exploration and mining JVs Akbastau and Karatau with Tenex started with Budenovskoye in the Stepnoye area of south Kazakhstan, which commenced production in 2008.

Prior to Kazatomprom’s establishment, other arrangements pertained for uranium development.

One of these was with Canada-based World-Wide Minerals Ltd (WWM), under a 1989 bilateral investment treaty between Canada and the USSR.* * WWM invested heavily in the country over 1996-97, upgrading and operating the Tselinny (TGK) uranium mining and processing facilities at Stepnogorsk, with an option to acquire 90% equity in them as well as developing additional mines.WWM and subsidiaries entered into agreements with the Kazakh government, but claims that the government frustrated its endeavours, leading to a loss of more than million and its exit from the country.In January 2016 an international arbitral tribunal upheld WWM’s claims under investor-state arbitration and dismissed Kazakh objections. Kazatomprom has forged major strategic links with Russia, Japan and China, as well as taking a significant share in the international nuclear company Westinghouse.Future electricity demand will depend to some extent on the country’s role from 2019 in the Eurasian Economic Community energy market.Also the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) is planning transmission links from China.It controls all uranium exploration and mining as well as other nuclear-related activities, including imports and exports of nuclear materials.