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If one has accurate measurements of these parameters, then the age of the universe can be determined by using the Friedmann equation.
This equation relates the rate of change in the scale factor a(t) to the matter content of the universe.
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Turning this relation around, we can calculate the change in time per change in scale factor and thus calculate the total age of the universe by integrating this formula.
The age t is the Hubble parameter and the function F depends only on the fractional contribution to the universe's energy content that comes from various components.
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The uncertainty of 21 million years has been obtained by the agreement of a number of scientific research projects, such as microwave background radiation measurements by the Planck satellite, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and other probes.
In contrast, theories of the origin of the primordial state remain very speculative.
If one extrapolates the Lambda-CDM model backward from the earliest well-understood state, it quickly (within a small fraction of a second) reaches a singularity called the "Big Bang singularity".
Measurements of the cosmic background radiation give the cooling time of the universe since the Big Bang, of cosmological time.
This model is well understood theoretically and strongly supported by recent high-precision astronomical observations such as WMAP.
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