Dating abuse or dating violence is defined as the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member within the context of dating or courtship.

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Researchers interviewed the students at intervals over that time.

The study looked at a spectrum of behaviors, ranging from name calling and expressing anger, spreading rumors, and using controlling behaviors such as keeping track of dating partners, to physical violence such as slapping, hitting and biting, and sexual violence including forced kissing.

If you’ve got a nasty, bully girl in junior high, she’s going to have a bad outcome.” Cuevas’ study of 1,525 teens focused on the influence of cultural factors in dating violence among Latino youth.

He found low incidence of self-reported sexual violence – 2.1 percent of boys admitted perpetrating an act of sexual coercion compared to 0.4 percent of girls.

Middle school bullies were seven times more likely to become dating violence perpetrators by high school. “Our data show that for kids who gained self-esteem by dominance in middle school” via verbally or psychologically bullying others, “their need for control spilled over into their relationships four years later.” It’s not just the Nelson Muntz types, either, Espelage explained.

“I’m talking about the popular kids, the high social status kids, too.

The main aim of the study Espelage helped conduct was to illuminate any links between bullying at younger ages and violence as children began dating.

Using self-reports taken at intervals from 2008 through part of 2012, the study showed a very clear and dramatic link.

Before conducting his study, Cuevas anticipated that family bonds and support would help prevent both delinquency and dating violence. We thought it would be helpful, but it turned out to be helpful in decreasing all forms of violence we measured, and all forms of delinquency.” “We think family education is one of the real gateways for intervention and prevention,” he said.