According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries.

The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." In the 8th century AD, Turkic-speaking Oghuz tribes moved from Mongolia into present-day Central Asia.

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Although the Russian Revolution of 1917 had little direct impact, in the 1920s Turkmen forces joined Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, and Uzbeks in the so-called Basmachi Rebellion against the rule of the newly formed Soviet Union.

Although Turkmenistan was ill-prepared for independence and communist leader Saparmurad Niyazov preferred to preserve the Soviet Union, in October 1991 the fragmentation of that entity forced him to call a national referendum that approved independence.

The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Guam on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Guåhån Gaige islan Guåhån gi mås yahåyaya gi kadenan Marianas ya guiya mås dånkulu entre todu i isla yan úniku minantietieni niʼ i Estados Unidos desde 1898 na sakkan.

It is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands. Guam's economy is mainly supported by tourism (particularly from Japan, Korea and the Republic of China (Taiwan)) and United States armed forces bases.

The Chamorros, Guam's indigenous inhabitants, first populated the island approximately 6,000 years ago.

Ma fa'nana'an i isla "Tollai Amerika asta guatu Asia" saʼ put i minåolek pusisión-na gi yeogråfiku yan ekonomia.

Ma tatáncho este na isla kåsi 9700 (nuebi mit siete sientos) kilumetro gi geʼlichan San Francisco, 6000 (sais mit) kilumetro geʼlichan låo sumanhaya patte gi ya Honolulu, 2400 (dos mit kuatro sientos) kilumetro gi hayan i kattan Tokyo, 3400 (tres mit kuatro sientos) kilumetro kattan sanhayan Hong Kong yan 2400 (dos mit kuatro sientos) kilumetro gi kattan Manila.

The year 2006 saw intensification of the trends of arbitrary policy changes, shuffling of top officials, diminishing economic output outside the oil and gas sector, and isolation from regional and world organizations.

The sudden death of Niyazov at the end of 2006 left a complete vacuum of power, as his cult of personality, compared to that of former president Kim Il-sung of North Korea, had precluded the naming of a successor.

Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia.